Say bearing walls, do you really know which wall in your house is the bearing wall?

Today in Weibo, someone asked Xiao Bian. “I say that bearing walls cannot be removed. How do I know which ones are the load-bearing walls? How can I know which ones are not load-bearing walls?” I don’t know why it doesn’t matter. Today Xiao Bian gave you a comprehensive analysis of the problem of bearing walls. ! In the domestic housing market, the mainstream structural system is nothing more than three: masonry structure, shear wall structure, and frame structure. 1. Masonry structure Masonry structure is the most common residential structural system. Before the 1990s, square, 5th and 6th floors, old workshops, or bobbin houses or unit welfare rooms or dormitory buildings were basically masonry. Structure, or the so-called "brick and mortar" structure. ▲ The figure above is a typical masonry structure with two rooms and two rooms. The blackened squares in the picture are reinforced concrete structural columns with steel bars inside. These are definitely not to be destroyed. All other lightly filled walls are masonry shear walls, concrete structural columns and masonry shear walls, which constitute the entire vertical structural system and carry all the structural loads. To make it easier for everyone to look at the map, I set the ceiling to be transparent. You can compare it with the above plan. Gray is concrete, and red is masonry. Between the masonry wall and the transparent floor, it is a concrete ring beam. In fact, each wall contributes to the structure's resistance to lateral stiffness. Some people may say, "I'll just remove a little wall and it's okay." Indeed, by removing a little wall, the house will not fall down. However, when the earthquake happened, it might just be a little bit of lateral bearing capacity... I was not an alarmist, nature was cruel, This difference in carrying capacity may lead to the difference between surviving and collapsing in an earthquake. Moreover, the general masonry structure is an old house. It may be that at the time of construction, the standards for design and construction itself were not high, and they were old, and old arms and old legs could not stand the toss. Not only cannot the wall be demolished, and structural columns cannot be removed, neither can the floor beams and ring beams be destroyed, nor can walls be added. The design bearing capacity of these masonry structures is already very reluctant, and some of the floor slabs are prefabricated hollow slabs and even individual wooden floor slabs. Never add a brick wall to the floor! If the floor is cracked, the floor collapses and it is terrible. If you really need it, please use light dry steel gypsum board, honeycomb paperboard, glass partitions and other light dry wall. 2. Shear wall structure The high-rise residential houses that began to appear in the mid to late 1990s used a large number of concrete shear wall structures. Basically, residential buildings with 9 floors and 10 floors up to 30 floors or even higher are all shear wall structures. ▲ The figure above is a typical shear wall structure house, with two rooms and two rooms, basically one in the middle of a three-room ladder. The blackened wall in the picture is a reinforced concrete shear wall and must not be destroyed. The slashes are filled with block walls and, in principle, are not structural, so they can be properly remodeled. As shown in the figure above, the gray is the concrete, and the red is the masonry infill wall. Note that not only concrete walls cannot be destroyed, but concrete joint beams and floor beams cannot be damaged. Notice that there are concrete connecting beams on the walls of the filling, and do not pry off the concrete coupling beams. I have seen some of the barbaric decoration, and saw all the beams and beams directly. The consequences are very serious. In layman's terms, this picture shows the main structure of the concrete. Compare the two pictures above and below. The red wall that is missing in the picture below is the one that can be removed. Of course, as with the masonry structure, dismantling the infill wall can be, but do not add the infill wall. If it must be added, as with the masonry structure, use lightweight walls instead of bricks. Housing in some low-intensity areas, or houses with a lower number of floors, may use a frame-shear wall structure. Of course, this frame shear is not a typical frame shear, and most of them are "shear wall structures with a small number of frame columns." My personal opinion is that shear wall or frame-filled walls should not be changed. 3. Frame structure The frame structure is not too many, mainly the new 6-storey residential buildings, as well as single buildings, even rows, superimposed villas and bungalows, etc., occupying a relatively small market share. The picture above shows a typical garden house with a floor-to-ceiling residence, using a concrete special-shaped column system with a few ordinary frame columns. In the figure, black reinforced concrete frame columns are used, rectangular frames are common frame columns, and L-shaped and T-shaped columns are shaped columns. The ceiling of the upper floor is made transparent, which is how this clapboard house looks. For convenience, the concrete lintel above the doorway is not painted. Similarly, gray is concrete, and red is masonry. So, which parts are removable walls that can be dismantled? It is very simple, all the red infill walls can be removed, the picture is the end of the demolition. Note that only infill walls can be removed and the grey concrete beams above the walls must not be destroyed. Relatively speaking, the frame structure does not have a structural wall, so the degree of freedom of the reconstruction is great. However, please also note that after the demolition, you must not add a brick wall. If you want to add, especially if you add a wall to a place where there is no wall, use lightweight walls such as plasterboard, honeycomb paperboard, and glass. Summary: There is no need to change the wall during the renovation. Before proceeding, it is advisable to think calmly and not to be fooled by the decoration company. To increase the workload of wall-building, wall-breaking, and wall-building, they have more money to earn, and their own houses cherish their own care. Even if they do not think about their neighbors, they must also think for themselves. When developers on the Internet, brick-smashing brick houses, and "bean curd refuse" projects are put into operation, they may wish to first think about whether they have survived the wall and have not compromised the structural safety of themselves and their neighbors.

Wall construction

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