Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The production of pollution-free vegetables can strictly control the quality of fertilizers, select the type of fertilizer, determine the amount of fertilizer and the fertilization period, and so on. It not only cultivates the soil to ensure the high-yield and stable production of vegetables, but also helps to cultivate the strong seedlings resistant to diseases and insects.ç§§ Reduce the use of pesticides to ensure that high-quality and pollution-free products are produced with high economic benefits without harm to the ecological environment. A large number of long-term continuous use of chemical fertilizers will cause soil degradation, mainly in the areas of soil acidification, increased leaching of calcium and magnesium, destruction of soil structure, imbalance of nutrient content in the soil, and pollution of the ecological environment. Can slow down the above process.
First, the role of organic fertilizer in the production of pollution-free vegetables
Organic fertilizers are rich in organic matter and a variety of nutrients required by crops. They are a complete fertilizer that has a unique role in improving soil, increasing fertility and producing pollution-free vegetables.
1. Organic fertilizers are complete, and many nutrients can be directly absorbed and utilized by vegetable crops.
2. It can improve the structure and physical and chemical properties of the soil, improve the buffer capacity of the soil and the ability to maintain fertilizer and fertilizer, and increase the aeration and water permeability of the soil, thereby improving the water, fertilizer, gas and heat of the soil.
3. Organic fertilizer can form humus in soil, not only can provide nutrients directly to plants, but also its colloid can form water-soluble and water-insoluble conjugates or chelates with various metal ions, which can increase the species and activity of microorganisms. .
4. Excessive application of chemical fertilizers is easy to form salt concentration barriers, while the nutrition of organic fertilizers is slowly released, long-acting, and multiple application is not easy to cause concentration barriers.
5. Most of the protected areas are close to closed facilities. The large amount of co2 released by organic fertilizer during the decomposition process becomes an important source of raw materials for photosynthesis, and the application of organic fertilizer can increase the temperature of soil in winter greenhouses. The greenhouse winter production is very precious.
6. When organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer have the same content of n, p and k, organic fertilizer can greatly reduce the content of nitrate in vegetable products.
7. Adding organic fertilizer can increase the content of nutrients such as vc, reducing sugar and minerals in vegetable products and improve quality.
8. Long-term application of organic fertilizer can improve the plant's resistance and disease resistance, and can maintain the high yield and stable yield of vegetable production.
Most of the organic fertilizers are excreta of humans and animals, as well as animal and plant residues. The sources are complex. When used in the production of pollution-free vegetables, attention should be paid to high-temperature disinfection and sanitation operations. Therefore, we must pay attention to the source of organic fertilizer, choose organic fertilizer with good environmental quality as much as possible, and gradually carry out pollution-free vegetable production according to the requirements of the internal circulation industry of the International Organic Agriculture Movement Alliance.
Second, the application method of organic fertilizer
The traditional organic fertilizer composting and application method not only has low effective nutrient content of fertilizer, but also consumes a large amount of manpower and material resources, and is unsanitary. Due to the unresolved manure treatment in the large-scale operation of chicken farms and pig farms, it also brings pollution to the environment, soil and vegetables. Therefore, on the basis of absorbing foreign experience, China's major cities such as Beijing and Shanghai have carried out research and processing of organic fertilizer factory in recent years, and have achieved certain results. For example, in Beijing, chicken manure is used as the main raw material, and modern industrial production methods and some equipment are used for factory processing to produce high-efficiency organic fertilizer (odorless chicken manure). At the same time, according to the needs of different vegetable types, a small amount of inorganic fertilizer is added. Produce organic and inorganic compound fertilizers suitable for different types of vegetable crops, such as special fertilizers suitable for medium fertility leafy vegetables, including organic matter 22.1%, n 8%, p2o5 6%, k2o 8%, and also contain ca, mg , s and a variety of trace elements. This kind of nutrients is complete, quick-acting and slow-acting. It not only has a good yield-increasing effect, but also has a good fertilizer for fertilizing and improving soil, which is very popular among the farmers. The processing of human, livestock and poultry manure has reduced impurities, the nutrient content has been greatly increased, the transportation volume has been significantly reduced, and the use is also very convenient. At the same time, after processing, the pathogens in the feces, such as parasite eggs, have the function of bactericidal and insecticidal. The processed fertilizer is not only odorless, but also hygienic and clean, creating conditions for the production of pollution-free vegetables.
Another simple and practical method is high-temperature composting. During the process of composting, the fertilizer can produce high temperature of 55-70 Â°C for 10-15 days, killing pathogenic microorganisms, eggs and miscellaneous in agricultural waste. Grass seeds have a significant effect. Therefore, high-temperature composting is an effective measure for the harmless treatment of agricultural wastes, and has a significant effect on preventing bio-contamination of vegetable fields and reducing the occurrence of pests and diseases and the breeding of weeds in vegetable production.
Third, the source of fertilization technology for pollution-free vegetable production:
1. The base fertilizer for the production of non-polluted vegetables of base fertilizer should be organic fertilizer. Choose organic fertilizers that are in line with the production of pollution-free vegetables, apply them deep, and mix them evenly with the soil.
2. Topdressing vegetables are big water and large fertilizer crops, especially fruits and vegetables with long growth period and continuous results. In addition to the need for a large amount of organic fertilizer as the base fertilizer, it is also necessary to supplement the top dressing. In order to meet the production standards for pollution-free vegetables, it is necessary to optimize the type of fertilizer, the amount of fertilizer and the period of topdressing.
(1) The fertilizer used for topdressing is not necessarily mineral fertilizer. It can use traditional Chinese manure, cake fertilizer and other organic fertilizers, and strictly control the amount of topdressing.
(2) Time for top dressing. For the one-time harvested vegetables, in order to avoid the accumulation of nitrate, topdressing should be carried out in advance, and it is strictly forbidden to topdress within 15 to 20 days before harvesting. For melon and fruit vegetables that continuously grow melons, they should be applied as much as possible 15 to 20 days before the peak of harvest.
(3) According to the sensitivity of different types of vegetables to nitrate accumulation, flexible control of mouthwash arrangement and fertilization and soil-cultivation measures, such as the production of a large amount of organic fertilizer as base fertilizer and top dressing when producing fruits and vegetables that are not sensitive to nitrate; When producing leafy vegetables and root vegetables that are sensitive to nitrate accumulation, try not to fertilize or fertilize as much as possible. And try to use the sputum with more fertilization before the sputum to directly use the nutrients of the anterior sputum.
However, all these fertilization measures must be carried out under the conditions permitted by the production of pollution-free vegetables, so as not to pollute the ecological environment, and the produced agricultural products meet the standards of pollution-free.
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